Friday, August 7, 2015

Lawrence, Kansas

 

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Lawrence, Kansas
City
Lawrence City Hall with the Shunganunga Boulder in Robinson Park at the north end of Massachusetts Street (2011)
Lawrence City Hall with the Shunganunga Boulder in Robinson Park at the north end of Massachusetts Street (2011)
Official seal of Lawrence, Kansas
Seal
Nickname(s): Larryville,[1][2][3][4][5] River City[6]
Motto: From Ashes to Immortality
Location within Douglas County and Kansas
Location within Douglas County and Kansas
Coordinates: 38°58′18″N 95°14′7″WCoordinates: 38°58′18″N 95°14′7″W
Country United States
State Kansas
County Douglas
Founded 1854
Government
 • Type Representative republic
 • Mayor Jeremy Farmer[7]
 • Vice Mayor Leslie Soden[7]
 • Interim City Manager Diane Stoddard[8]
Area[9]
 • City 34.26 sq mi (88.73 km2)
 • Land 33.56 sq mi (86.92 km2)
 • Water 0.70 sq mi (1.81 km2)
Elevation[10] 866 ft (264 m)
Population (2010)[11]
 • City 87,643
 • Estimate (2014)[12] 92,763
 • Density 2,600/sq mi (990/km2)
 • Metro 114,322
Time zone CST (UTC-6)
 • Summer (DST) CDT (UTC-5)
ZIP code 66044-66047, 66049
Area code 785
FIPS code 20-38900 [10]
GNIS feature ID 0479145 [10]
Website lawrenceks.org
Lawrence is the sixth largest city in the state of Kansas and the county seat of Douglas County. Located in northeastern Kansas, Lawrence is the anchor city of the Lawrence, Kansas, Metropolitan Statistical Area, which encompasses all of Douglas County. It is approximately 25 miles east of Topeka, and 41 miles west of Kansas City, Missouri. Lawrence is situated along the banks of the Kansas and Wakarusa Rivers. As of the 2010 census, the city's population was 87,643.[13] Lawrence is a college town and is the home to the University of Kansas and Haskell Indian Nations University.
Lawrence was founded by the New England Emigrant Aid Company and was named for Amos Adams Lawrence who offered financial aid and support for the settlement.[14][15] Lawrence was central to the Bleeding Kansas era and was the site of the Wakarusa War, the sacking of Lawrence, and the Lawrence Massacre.[16]
Lawrence had its beginnings as a center of Kansas politics. However, its economy soon diversified into many industries including agriculture, manufacturing, and ultimately education, beginning with the founding of the University of Kansas in 1866, and later Haskell Indian Nations University in 1884.

History

Settlement

Prior to Kansas Territory being opened to settlement in May 1854, most of Douglas County was part of the Shawnee Indian Reservation.[17] The Oregon Trail followed the Kansas River through what would become Lawrence and Mount Oread was used as a landmark and an outlook.[17]
Dr. Charles Robinson and Charles Branscomb were sent by the New England Emigrant Aid Company to scout for a location for a city. They arrived in the vicinity of Lawrence in July 1854 and noted the beauty of the area and felt the area was well suited for a town.[17]
The original “pioneer party” left Massachusetts on July 17, 1854 and consisted of 29 men.[17] They arrived at the site Robinson and Branscomb selected on August 1. The second party arrived in Lawrence on September 9 after leaving August 9.[17] The town was officially named Lawrence City on October 6. Original names for the settlement were Wakarusa, Yankee Town, New Boston[17] and Plymouth but Lawrence was chosen to honor Amos A. Lawrence, a valuable benefactor of the Emigrant Aid Company and because “the name sounded well and had no bad odor attached to it in any part of the Union."[17] The main street of the town was named Massachusetts to commemorate the origins of the pioneer party.[18]
The first post office in Lawrence was established in January 1855.[19]
Plymouth Congregational Church in Lawrence was the first church established in Kansas Territory.
In March 1857, the Quincy School was started in the Emigrant Aid office before moving to the basement of the Unitarian Church in April. The Plymouth Congregational Church was started in September 1854 by Reverend S.Y. Lum, a missionary sent to Kansas.

Bleeding Kansas and the Civil War

Shortly after Lawrence’s founding, two newspapers were started: The Kansas Pioneer and the Herald of Freedom. Both papers touted the Free State mission which caused problems from the people of Lecompton, then the pro-slavery headquarters, located about ten miles northwest of Lawrence, and land squatters from Missouri. The Kansas Free State began in early January 1855.[20]
On November 21, 1855, Charles Dow was shot and killed by Franklin Coleman in Hickory Point about fourteen miles south of Lawrence. Shortly after, a small army of Missourians led by Douglas County Sheriff Samuel L. Jones entered Kansas to attack Lawrence. John Brown and James Lane had hustled Lawrence citizens into an army and erected barricades but no attack happened. A treaty was signed and the Missouri army reluctantly left.[21]
Ruins of Free State Hotel after the attack in 1856
Harassment by Sheriff Jones and other Southern sympathizers continued unabated. The Herald of Freedom, the Kansas Free State and the Free State Hotel were indicted as being “nuisances.”[20] On April 23, 1856 Sheriff Jones was shot while trying to arrest free-state settlers.[22] On May 21, Sheriff Jones and a posse of 800 Southern sympathizers converged on Lawrence. Dr. Robinson’s house on Mount Oread was taken by the federal marshal as headquarters and the newspaper printing presses were damaged and thrown in the river. The Free State Hotel was also destroyed.[23]
Despite the constant presence of impending war, Lawrence continued to grow. Its 1860 population was estimated at 2,500 although the official Census recorded 1,645.[24] Lawrence became the county seat of Douglas County in 1857, prior to that Lecompton had been the seat and even when the American Civil War broke out in April 1861, Lawrence was still a magnet to conflict. William Clarke Quantrill and 300-400 Confederate guerillas rode into Lawrence and sacked the city at dawn on August 21, 1863. Most houses and businesses in Lawrence were burned and between 150 and 200 men and boys were murdered.[25][26]

Post-Civil War

Attempts to begin a university in Kansas were first undertaken in 1855,[27] but it was only after Kansas became a state in 1861 that those attempts saw any real fruition. An institute of learning was proposed in 1859 as The University of Lawrence, but it never opened. When Kansas became a state, provision was included in the Kansas Constitution for a state university.[27] From 1861 to 1863 the question of where the university would be located—Lawrence, Manhattan or Emporia—was debated. In February 1863, Manhattan was made the location of the state's land-grant college, leaving only Lawrence and Emporia as candidates. The fact that Lawrence had $10,000 plus interest donated by Amos Lawrence plus 40 acres (160,000 m2) to donate for the university had great weight with the legislature and Lawrence beat out Emporia by one vote. The University of Kansas officially opened in 1866 with 55 students.[27]
Old North College in 1867—the first building on KU Campus
Facing an energy crisis in the early 1870s, the city contracted with Orlando Darling to construct a dam across the Kansas River to help provide the city with power. Frustrated with the construction of the dam, Darling resigned and the Lawrence Land & Water Company completed the dam without him in 1873; however, only when J.D. Bowersock took over the dam in 1879 that the constant damage to the dam ceased and repairs held up. The dam made Lawrence unique which helped in winning business against Kansas City and Leavenworth. The dam closed in 1968 but was reopened in 1977 with help from the city, which wanted to build a new city hall adjacent to the Bowersock Plant.[28][29]
In 1884, the United States Indian Industrial Training School was opened in Lawrence during a time when Native American boarding schools were used to undermine Tribal Nations. Boys were taught the trades of tailor making, blacksmithing, farming and others while girls were taught cooking and homemaking. In 1887, the name was changed to the Haskell Institute, after Dudley Haskell, a legislator responsible for the school being in Lawrence. In 1993, the name was changed again to Haskell Indian Nations University.[30]

North Lawrence

The Lawrence Visitors Center, formerly the Union Pacific Depot
Grant Township, north of the Kansas River, was annexed to Douglas County in 1870 from southern Sarcoxie Township in Jefferson County. The largest city in the township was Jefferson, founded in 1866 just over the river from Lawrence. Jefferson was renamed North Lawrence in 1869 and it was attempted to annex the town to Lawrence proper but the motion failed. In 1870 the State Legislature annexed the town.[31]
Just northeast of North Lawrence was the site of Bismarck Grove, home to numerous picnics, temperance meetings and fairs. In 1870, “Bismarck” was organized and the first gathering was a temperance meeting in 1878. The last fair was held at the Grove in 1899 and the area became private property in 1900.[32]

20th century and beyond

In 1888, Watkins National Bank opened at 11th & Massachusetts. Founded by Jabez B. Watkins, the bank would last until 1929. Watkin’s wife Elizabeth donated the bank building to the city to use as a city hall. In 1970, the city built a new city hall and after extensive renovations, the bank reopened in 1975 as the Elizabeth M. Watkins Community Museum.[33]
Watkins Community Museum, once Watkins National Bank and Lawrence City Hall
In 1903, the Kansas River flooded causing property damage in Lawrence, especially North Lawrence. The water got as high as 27 feet and water marks can still be seen on some buildings especially at TeePee Junction at the U.S. 24-40 intersection and at Burcham Park.[34][35] Lawrence would be hit by other floods in 1951,[36] where the water rose over 30 feet,[35] and in 1993 but with the reservoir and levee system in place, Lawrence only had minimal damage compared to the other floods.[37]
Also in 1903, Theodore Roosevelt visited Lawrence on his way to Manhattan where he gave a short speech and dedicated a fountain at 9th & New Hampshire.[38] The fountain was later moved to South Park next to the gazebo. Roosevelt would visit Lawrence again in 1910 after visiting Osawatomie where he dedicated the John Brown State Historical Site and gave a speech on New Nationalism.[39]
In 1871, the Lawrence Street Railway Company opened and offered citizens easy access to hotels and businesses along Massachusetts Street. The first streetcar was pulled by horses and mules and the track just ran along Massachusetts Street. After the 1903 flood, the Kansas River bridge had to be rebuilt but was not considered safe for a streetcar to pass over. The Lawrence Street Railway Company closed later that year. In 1907, C.L. Rutter attempted to bring back a bus system, after having failed in 1902. In 1909, a new streetcar system was implemented putting Rutter out of business and lasting until 1935.[40]
In 1921, Lawrence Memorial Hospital opened in the 300 block of Maine Street. It started with only 50 beds but by 1980, the hospital would expand to 200.[41] LMH has been awarded several awards and recognitions for care and quality including The Hospital Value Index Best in Value Award and is ranked nationally in the top five percent for heart attack care by the American College of Cardiology.[42]
In 1929 Lawrence began celebrating its 75th anniversary. The city dedicated Founder’s Rock, commonly referred to as the Shunganunga Boulder, a huge red boulder brought to Lawrence from near Tecumseh. The rock honors the two parties of the Emigrant Aid Society who first settled in Lawrence.[43] Lawrence also dedicated the Lawrence Municipal Airport on October 14.[35]
In 1943, the federal government transported German and Italian prisoners of World War II to Kansas and other Midwest states to work on farms and help solve the labor shortage caused by American men serving in the war effort. Large internment camps were established in Kansas: Camp Concordia, Camp Funston (at Fort Riley), Camp Phillips (at Salina under Fort Riley). Fort Riley established 12 smaller branch camps, including Lawrence.[44] The camp in Lawrence was near 11th & Haskell Avenue near the railroad tracks. The camp would close by the end of 1945.
In 1947, Gilbert Francis and his son George opened Francis Sporting Goods downtown, selling mostly fishing and hunting gear. A decade later they moved across the street to larger retail space at 731 Massachusetts, enabling them to expand into other sporting goods. In November 2014, in the wake of the opening of a new Dick's Sporting Goods location in Lawrence, Francis Sporting Goods, announced its retail business, located within what had become Lawrence's Downtown Historic District, would be closed by the end of the year, allowing the Francis family to focus on supplying uniforms and equipment to teams.[45]
The 900 block of Massachusetts Street
In the early 1980s, Lawrence grabbed attention from the television movie The Day After. The TV movie first appeared on ABC but was later shown in movie theaters around the world. The movie depicted what would happen if the United States were destroyed in a nuclear war. The movie was filmed in Lawrence, and hundreds of local residents appeared in the film as extras and in speaking roles.[46]
In 1989, the Free State Brewing Company opened in Lawrence becoming the first legal brewery in Kansas in more than 100 years.[47] The restaurant is in a renovated inter-urban trolley station in downtown Lawrence.
In 2007, Lawrence was named one of the best places to retire by U.S. News & World Report.[48] In 2011, the city was named one of America's 10 best college towns by Parents & Colleges.[49]

Geography

2005 KDOT map of Douglas County showing Lawrence and surrounding communities (map legend)
Downtown Lawrence is located at 38°58′18″N 95°14′7″W (38.959902, −95.253199) at an elevation of 866 feet (264 m),[50] and the highest elevation is Mount Oread on the University of Kansas campus with an elevation of 1,020 feet (310 m).[51][52]
The city lies on the southern edge of the Dissected Till Plains, bordering the Osage Plains to the south.[53][54] According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 34.26 square miles (88.73 km2), of which, 33.56 square miles (86.92 km2) is land and 0.70 square miles (1.81 km2) is water,[9] and is split between Wakarusa Township and Grant Township with small portions in Lecompton, Kanwaka and Clinton Townships.
Lawrence is located between the Kansas and Wakarusa rivers. There are several major creeks that flow through Lawrence. Burroughs Creek in east Lawrence and Baldwin Creek in northwestern Lawrence that converge with the Kansas River. Yankee Tank Creek in southwest Lawrence and an unnamed creek that flows through central Lawrence converge with the Wakarusa River south of the city. Yankee Tank Creek is dammed to form Lake Alvamar, which was originally called Yankee Tank Lake.[55] The Wakarusa River is dammed to form Clinton Lake. Potter Lake is located on KU Campus and Mary’s Lake is located in southeastern Lawrence as part of Prairie Park. There are also the Haskell-Baker Wetlands maintained by Haskell University and Baker University.[56]
An Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe locomotive in Watson Park
A foot path in Watson Park
Lawrence has 54 parks which includes community parks, neighborhood parks, trails, cemeteries and nature preserves.[57] Community parks include South Park, Buford Watson Park, Broken Arrow Park, Riverfront Park, Holcomb Park, “Dad” Perry Park, Centennial Park and Prairie Park. Cemeteries include Oak Hill, Maple Grove and Memorial Park.[58] The first cemetery in Lawrence, Pioneer Cemetery, is on the University of Kansas campus and is maintained by KU.

Climate

Lawrence lies in the transition between the humid continental (Köppen Dfa) and humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa) zones, typically experiencing hot, humid summers and cold, dry winters.[59] The monthly daily average temperature ranges from 28.4 °F (−2.0 °C) in January to 78.5 °F (25.8 °C) in July. The high temperature reaches or exceeds 90 °F (32 °C) an average of 32 days a year and 100 °F (38 °C) an average of 1.9 days. The minimum temperature falls to or below 0 °F (−18 °C) on an average 4.9 days a year.[60] Extreme temperatures range from 111 °F (44 °C) on July 13 and 14, 1954 down to −21 °F (−29 °C) on December 22, 1989.[61]
On average, Lawrence receives 39.9 inches (1,010 mm) of precipitation annually, most of which occurs in the warmer months, and records 96 days of measurable precipitation.[60] Measurable snowfall occurs an average of 8 days per year with 4.6 days receiving at least 1.0 inch (2.5 cm). Snow depth of at least one inch occurs an average of 15.8 days a year.

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